Supercharged Deutsch supercharged
super·charged [ˈsu:pətʃɑ:ʤd, Am -ɚtʃɑ:r-] ADJ. 1. supercharged (more powerful): supercharged car · mit Lader nach Subst. supercharged engine. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "supercharged engine" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für supercharged im Online-Wörterbuch woens.nl (Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'supercharged' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten. Übersetzung für 'supercharged' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
supercharged - Wörterbuch Englisch-Deutsch. Stichwörter und Wendungen sowie Übersetzungen. super·charged [ˈsu:pətʃɑ:ʤd, Am -ɚtʃɑ:r-] ADJ. 1. supercharged (more powerful): supercharged car · mit Lader nach Subst. supercharged engine. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'supercharged' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten.
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Action Thriller. Fast Five Two-stroke engines require scavenging at all engine speeds and so turbocharged two-stroke engines must still employ a blower, usually Roots type.
This blower may be mechanically or electrically driven, in either case, the blower may be disengaged once the turbocharger starts to deliver air.
In , Gottlieb Daimler , of Daimler-Benz Daimler AG , was the first to patent a forced-induction system for internal combustion engines, superchargers based on the twin-rotor air-pump design, first patented by the American Francis Marion Roots in , the basic design for the modern Roots type supercharger.
Since then, superchargers and turbochargers have been widely applied to racing and production cars, although the supercharger's technological complexity and cost have largely limited it to expensive, high-performance cars.
Keeping the air that enters the engine cool is an important part of the design of both superchargers and turbochargers.
Compressing air increases its temperature, so it is common to use a small radiator called an intercooler between the pump and the engine to reduce the temperature of the air.
Mechanically driven superchargers may absorb as much as a third of the total crankshaft power of the engine and are less efficient than turbochargers.
However, in applications for which engine response and power are more important than other considerations, such as top-fuel dragsters and vehicles used in tractor pulling competitions, mechanically driven superchargers are very common.
For this reason, both economy and the power of a turbocharged engine are usually better than with superchargers. Turbochargers suffer to a greater or lesser extent from so-called turbo-spool turbo lag; more correctly, boost lag , in which initial acceleration from low RPM is limited by the lack of sufficient exhaust gas mass flow pressure.
Once engine RPM is sufficient to raise the turbine RPM into its designed operating range, there is a rapid increase in power, as a higher turbo boost causes more exhaust gas production, which spins the turbo yet faster, leading to a belated "surge" of acceleration.
This makes the maintenance of smoothly increasing RPM far harder with turbochargers than with engine-driven superchargers, which apply boost in direct proportion to the engine RPM.
The main advantage of an engine with a mechanically driven supercharger is better throttle response, as well as the ability to reach full-boost pressure instantaneously.
With the latest turbocharging technology and direct gasoline injection, throttle response on turbocharged cars is nearly as good as with mechanically powered superchargers, but the existing lag time is still considered a major drawback, especially considering that the vast majority of mechanically driven superchargers are now driven off clutched pulleys, much like an air compressor.
Turbocharging has been more popular than superchargers among auto manufacturers owing to better power and efficiency. However, Audi did introduce its 3.
In the and World Rally Championships, Lancia ran the Delta S4 , which incorporated both a belt-driven supercharger and exhaust-driven turbocharger.
The design used a complex series of bypass valves in the induction and exhaust systems as well as an electromagnetic clutch so that, at low engine speeds, a boost was derived from the supercharger.
In the middle of the rev range, a boost was derived from both systems, while at the highest revs the system disconnected the drive from the supercharger and isolated the associated ducting.
In turn, this approach brought greater complexity and impacted on the car's reliability in WRC events, as well as increasing the weight of engine ancillaries in the finished design.
Volvo offers a 2. Superchargers are a natural addition to aircraft piston engines that are intended for operation at high altitudes.
As an aircraft climbs to a higher altitude, air pressure and air density decreases. The output of a piston engine drops because of the reduction in the mass of air that can be drawn into the engine.
In addition, there is decreased back pressure on the exhaust gases. A supercharger can be thought of either as artificially increasing the density of the air by compressing it or as forcing more air than normal into the cylinder every time the piston moves down.
A supercharger compresses the air back to sea-level-equivalent pressures, or even much higher, in order to make the engine produce just as much power at cruise altitude as it does at sea level.
With the reduced aerodynamic drag at high altitude and the engine still producing rated power, a supercharged airplane can fly much faster at altitude than a naturally aspirated one.
The pilot controls the output of the supercharger with the throttle and indirectly via the propeller governor control. Since the size of the supercharger is chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitudes, the supercharger is oversized for low altitude.
The pilot must be careful with the throttle and watch the manifold pressure gauge to avoid over-boosting at low altitude.
As the aircraft climbs and the air density drops, the pilot must continuously open the throttle in small increments to maintain full power. The altitude at which the throttle reaches full open and the engine is still producing full rated power is known as the critical altitude.
Above the critical altitude, engine power output will start to drop as the aircraft continues to climb.
As discussed above, supercharging can cause a spike in temperature, and extreme temperatures will cause detonation of the fuel-air mixture and damage to the engine.
In the case of aircraft, this causes a problem at low altitudes, where the air is both denser and warmer than at high altitudes. With high ambient air temperatures, detonation could start to occur with the manifold pressure gauge reading far below the red line.
A supercharger optimized for high altitudes causes the opposite problem on the intake side of the system. With the throttle retarded to avoid over-boosting, air temperature in the carburetor can drop low enough to cause ice to form at the throttle plate.
In this manner, enough ice could accumulate to cause engine failure, even with the engine operating at full rated power. For this reason, many supercharged aircraft featured a carburetor air temperature gauge or warning light to alert the pilot of possible icing conditions.
Several solutions to these problems were developed: intercoolers and aftercoolers, anti-detonant injection , two-speed superchargers, and two-stage superchargers.
In the s, two-speed drives were developed for superchargers for aero engines providing more flexible aircraft operation. The arrangement also entailed more complexity of manufacturing and maintenance.
The gears connected the supercharger to the engine using a system of hydraulic clutches, which were initially manually engaged or disengaged by the pilot with a control in the cockpit.
At low altitudes, the low-speed gear would be used in order to keep the manifold temperatures low. Later installations automated the gear change according to atmospheric pressure.
In the Battle of Britain the Spitfire and Hurricane planes powered by the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine were equipped largely with single-stage and single speed superchargers.
Horsepower and performance were increased at all altitudes. Hooker's developments allowed the aircraft they powered to maintain a crucial advantage over the German aircraft they opposed throughout World War II, despite the German engines being significantly larger in displacement.
After the air was compressed in the low-pressure stage , the air flowed through an intercooler radiator where it was cooled before being compressed again by the high-pressure stage and then possibly also aftercooled in another heat exchanger.
In some two-stage systems, damper doors would be opened or closed by the pilot in order to bypass one stage as needed. Rolls-Royce Merlin engines had fully automated boost control with all the pilot having to do was advance the throttle with the control system limiting boost as necessary until maximum altitude was reached.
A mechanically driven supercharger has to take its drive power from the engine. This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent.
The engine has to burn extra fuel to provide power to drive the supercharger. The increased air density during the input cycle increases the specific power of the engine and its power-to-weight ratio , but at the cost of an increase in the specific fuel consumption of the engine.
In addition to increasing the cost of running the aircraft a supercharger has the potential to reduce its overall range for a specific fuel load.
As opposed to a supercharger driven by the engine itself, a turbocharger is driven using the otherwise wasted exhaust gas from the engine.
The amount of power in the gas is proportional to the difference between the exhaust pressure and air pressure, and this difference increases with altitude, helping a turbocharged engine to compensate for changing altitude.
This increases the height at which maximum power output of the engine is attained compared to supercharger boosting, and allows better fuel consumption at high altitude compared to an equivalent supercharged engine.
This facilitates increased true airspeed at high altitude and gives a greater operational range than an equivalently boosted engine using a supercharger.
The majority of aircraft engines used during World War II used mechanically driven superchargers because they had some significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers.
However, the benefit to the operational range was given a much higher priority to American aircraft because of a less predictable requirement on the operational range and having to travel far from their home bases.
The size of the ducting alone was a serious design consideration. For example, both the F4U Corsair and the P Thunderbolt used the same radial engine , but the large barrel-shaped fuselage of the turbocharged P was needed because of the amount of ducting to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the aircraft.
The F4U used a two-stage inter-cooled supercharger with a more compact layout. Nonetheless, turbochargers were useful in high-altitude bombers and some fighter aircraft due to the increased high altitude performance and range.
Turbocharged piston engines are also subject to many of the same operating restrictions as those of gas turbine engines.
Turbocharged engines also require frequent inspections of their turbochargers and exhaust systems to search for possible damage caused by the extreme heat and pressure of the turbochargers.
Such damage was a prominent problem in the early models of the American Boeing B Superfortress high-altitude bombers used in the Pacific Theater of Operations during — In more recent times most aircraft engines for general aviation light airplanes are naturally aspirated , but the smaller number of modern aviation piston engines designed to run at high altitudes use turbocharger or turbo-normalizer systems, instead of a supercharger driven from the crankshafts.
The change in thinking is largely due to economics. Aviation gasoline was once plentiful and cheap, favoring the simple but fuel-hungry supercharger.
As the cost of fuel has increased, the ordinary supercharger has fallen out of favor. Also, depending on what monetary inflation factor one uses, fuel costs have not decreased as fast as production and maintenance costs have.
Until the late s, all automobile and aviation fuel was generally rated at 87 octane or less. This is the rating that was achieved by the simple distillation of "light crude" oil.
Engines from around the world were designed to work with this grade of fuel, which set a limit to the amount of boosting that could be provided by the supercharger while maintaining a reasonable compression ratio.
Octane rating boosting through additives was a line of research being explored at the time. Using these techniques, less valuable crude could still supply large amounts of useful gasoline, which made it a valuable economic process.
However, the additives were not limited to making poor-quality oil into octane gasoline; the same additives could also be used to boost the gasoline to much higher octane ratings.
Higher-octane fuel resists auto ignition and detonation better than low-octane fuel. As a result, the amount of boost supplied by the superchargers could be increased, resulting in an increase in engine output.
The development of octane aviation fuel, pioneered in the USA before the war, enabled the use of higher boost pressures to be used on high-performance aviation engines and was used to develop extremely high-power outputs — for short periods — in several of the pre-war speed record airplanes.
Increasing the knocking limits of existing aviation fuels became a major focus of aero engine development during World War II. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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